Daylight Savings Time

Daylight Savings Time commonly referred to as DST is observed as the change in local time to effectively increase the productivity of the daylight hours by effecting sunrise to be observed as as hour earlier than normal and sunset one hour later. Though this routine has been in effect for over one hundred years, the concept of Daylight Savings was realized several years before its implementation.
The topic of Daylight Savings Time has been a recurring subject of debate within the Unites States of America and the United Kingdom for more than 100 years. Similar practices were used by ancient civilizations during which Romans would make the necessary adjustments to their schedule respective to the Sun’s positioning such as were seen in the Roman water clocks which would use various scales to reflect different months of the year.
The concept of Daylight Savings Time was first realized by Benjamin Franklin in the year 1784 while he was in Paris. It was through his published essay “An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light” that he made the suggestion to economize the rate of using candles by getting up earlier to successfully make more use of the early morning sunlight.

Contrary to the belief that it was Benjamin Franklin who invented Daylight Savings Time, the concept was first proposed by a New Zealand economist by the name of George Vernon Hudson in the year 1895. In his presented paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society in New Zealand he suggested advancing the clocks by two hours in the month of October and two hours backwards in the month of March to maximize the use of the daylight during those periods. This proposal was supplemented within an article three years later and although many saw the idea as an interesting possibility it was never implemented.
Eventually it was not until 1905 that Daylight Saving would be publicly acknowledged to a man by the name of William Willett who suggested that the local times be advanced 20 minutes for four Sundays in the month of April in the summer seasons to capitalize on the morning daylight and brighter evenings and 20 minutes backwards on the four Sundays in the month of September.
Robert Pearce who was moved by this suggestion introduced a bill in February 1908 to the House of Commons in support of implementing Daylight Savings Time. The first bill to address this principle was drafted in 1909 and although on several occasions was presented to the members of Parliament it was never approved even up to the point of the death of William Willett six years later.
In their efforts to replace the use of artificial lighting in order to conserve fuel during the World War 1 in Germany, Daylight Savings was quickly implemented on April 30th 1916 at 11:00 PM. The idea was followed by other countries including Great Britain, and the United States of America. With the end of World War 1 many countries returned to their local times and it was not until the event of World War II was Daylight Saving Time implemented in order to effect energy costs.
It was the United Stated President Franklin D. Roosevelt who introduced a yearly occurrence of Daylight Saving Time within the United States which was known as “War Time” seen during the period of World War II February 9th 1942 to September 30th 1945. Forty days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese, the law was successfully enforced which resulted in the labeling of time zones as Eastern War Time, Pacific War Time and Central War Time. With the surrendering of Japan in August 1945 the zones were renamed Peace Time Zones respectively.
Widespread confusion spread within the transportation and broadcasting industries within the United States regarding Daylight Saving Time as several states were allowed whether or not to observe Daylight Savings. In 1966 Congress by establishing what was known as the Uniform Time Act stated that Daylight Savings would begin on the last Sunday of the month of April and end on the last Sunday in the month of October. This bill in addition allowed certain states to be exempt to Daylight Savings.
The Daylight Savings Period was extended by congress in 1974 to ten months and reduced to eight months in 1975 in order to reduce fuel consumption as a result of oil embargo in 1973. This revealed the potential of Daylight Savings to save the energy consumption by more than 10,000 barrels daily. Following the end of the energy crisis in 1976 the United Stated rescheduled Daylight Savings to the last Sunday in the month of April which was later rescheduled to reflect it’s start on the First Sunday in the month of April in 1987.
Today several countries worldwide are using Daylight Savings Time affecting more than a billion people on a yearly basis through a variation of beginning and ending dates much different from those experienced within the United States.